Silicon Valley Up-Start, Atom Computing, Chooses Colorado to Build Next-Generation Quantum Computers

September 28, 2022 — Boulder, CO — Atom Computing today announced the opening of its new research and development facility in Boulder during a ceremony attended by industry and academic partners, officials from federal, state, and local government, and representatives from Colorado’s Congressional delegation.

The new facility is Atom’s largest to date and will house future generations of its highly scalable quantum computers, which use atomic arrays of optically-trapped neutral atoms. The company opened its first office, which also serves as its global headquarters, in Berkeley, California in 2018.

Governor Jared Polis called the Boulder facility a significant and important investment in Colorado and evidence the state is emerging as the preeminent hub for quantum computing innovation in the U.S. and globally.

“We are excited to welcome Atom Computing to Boulder, which is already one of the world’s most booming centers for the quantum computing sector,” Polis said. “The addition of Atom Computing helps further position Colorado as an economic leader for the next big wave of technology development and will create more good-paying jobs for Coloradans.”

The Boulder facility represents an important milestone for Atom Computing, which raised $60 million through a Series B earlier this year to build its second-generation systems. The company’s 100-qubit prototype system, Phoenix, is housed in Berkeley and recently set an industry record for coherence time.

“Leading researchers and companies are choosing to partner with Atom Computing to develop quantum-enabled solutions because our atomic arrays have the potential to scale larger and faster than other qubit technologies,” said Rob Hays, CEO of Atom Computing.

Hays said the company chose Colorado because of the quantum expertise and top talent in the area and plans to expand its presence in the state. 

“We expect to invest $100 million in Colorado over the next three years as we develop our roadmap and hire more employees to support those efforts,” he said.

Ben Bloom, Atom Computing’s founder and CTO, said the company’s strong ties to Colorado also contributed to its decision to build a facility in Boulder.

“Many of our team members, myself included, have connections with local universities,” said Bloom, who earned a Ph.D. from University of Colorado-Boulder where he helped renowned physicist, Dr. Jun Ye, build one of the world’s most accurate atomic clocks. “We are committed to Colorado.”

Jun Ye, who currently serves as Atom’s Scientific Advisor, called the new facility an important addition to the quantum ecosystem.

"It is extremely gratifying to see our recent CU graduates emerge as the early trailblazers of the rapidly growing quantum industry,” said Ye, a physics professor at CU Boulder. “This creates a powerful ecosystem for the best science and technology to develop side-by-side, providing outstanding opportunities for Colorado students to lead the next wave of innovations in quantum research and the market.”

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About Atom Computing

Atom Computing is building scalable quantum computers with atomic arrays of optically-trapped neutral atoms, empowering researchers and companies to achieve unprecedented breakthroughs. Learn more at, and follow our journey on LinkedIn and Twitter.

Assembly and Coherent Control of a Register of Nuclear Spin Qubits | Nature

FoThe generation of a register of highly coherent, but independent, qubits is a prerequisite to performing universal quantum computation. Here we introduce a qubit encoded in two nuclear spin states of a single 87Sr atom and demonstrate coherence approaching the minute-scale within an assembled register of individually-controlled qubits. While other systems have shown impressive coherence times through some combination of shielding, careful trapping, global operations, and dynamical decoupling, we achieve comparable coherence times while individually driving multiple qubits in parallel. We highlight that even with simultaneous manipulation of multiple qubits within the register, we observe coherence in excess of 105 times the current length of the operations, with Techo2=(40±7)T2echo=(40±7) seconds. 

Atom Computing Sets a World-Record Coherence Time for Neutral Atom Qubits | FORBES​

Following a number of accomplishments in 2021, last week Atom Computing announced it had set a qubit coherence time record that was longer than any other commercial quantum platform. 

Establishing World-Record Coherence Times on Nuclear Spin qubits made from neutral atoms

Mickey McDonald, Senior Quantum Engineer

Coherence Times Matter

When building a quantum computer, the need to isolate qubits from environmental effects must be balanced against the need to engineer site-specific, controllable interactions with external fields. In our paper recently published in Nature Communications, we show results from our first-generation quantum computing system called Phoenix, which successfully navigates these competing requirements while demonstrating the capability to load more than 100 qubits. The most notable achievement we describe in this paper is the long coherence times of each of our qubits. Coherence is a term used to describe how long a qubit maintains its quantum state or encoded information. It’s important because longer coherence times mean fewer limitations on running deep circuits, and error-correction schemes have more time to detect and correct errors through mid-circuit measurements. On Phoenix, we set a new high water mark for coherence time.

Ramsey-echo measurements performed on an array of 21 qubits exhibit high contrast across tens of seconds, indicating a dephasing rate of T2echo = 40 +/- 7 seconds - the longest coherence time ever demonstrated on a commercial platform.

Achieving long coherence times requires that a qubit interact minimally with its environment, but this requirement often comes with a drawback: it is usually the case that the more weakly a qubit interacts with its environment, the more difficult it is to couple that qubit to whatever control fields are being used to drive interactions required to perform quantum computation. We manage these competing requirements by using a clever choice of neutral atom-based qubit, and by performing single-qubit control using software-configurable dynamic lasers which can be steered and actuated with sub-micron spatial accuracy and sub-microsecond timing precision.

Simultaneous Control of Qubits 

Our software-configurable optical control scheme allows Phoenix to simultaneously drive arbitrary single-qubit gate operations on all qubits within a single column or row in parallel, while at the same time maintaining coherence times longer than any yet demonstrated on a commercial platform, with a measured T2echo = 40 +/- 7 seconds.

A high-level drawing of Phoenix. Qubits are trapped within a vacuum cell and controlled using software-configurable dynamic lasers projected through a high-numerical aperture microscope objective. Readout is performed by collecting scattered light through the same microscope objective onto a camera.

Our system encodes quantum information, i.e. the qubit states |0> and |1>, in two of the nuclear spin states of a single, uncharged strontium atom. This kind of qubit encoding has two key advantages. First, because both qubit states exist in the electronic ground state, the time it takes for one state to spontaneously decay to the other (AKA the spin-relaxation time “T1”) is effectively infinite. We demonstrate this on Phoenix by making spin relaxation measurements out to several seconds and confirming that the relative populations in each state remain unchanged to the limits of measurement precision.

The spin relaxation time (known as “T1”) describes how long it takes for a qubit initially prepared in one qubit state to decay to another. A short T1 would manifest as a line which starts near 1 and drifts downward. That our measured population can be fit with a horizontal line with no apparent downward drift indicates that our spin relaxation time is far longer than our longest measurement time.

The second key advantage of nuclear spin qubits is that because the qubit states have such similar energies, they are nearly identically affected by external fields. This means that perturbations, such as those induced by externally applied trapping light, will affect both qubit states in the same way. Because these perturbations are common-mode, they do not impact the system’s overall coherence - a feature which fundamentally enables our world-record coherence times.

Our Path Forward

This paper describing Phoenix demonstrates several key technological innovations necessary for the construction of a large-scale, commercial quantum computer: long coherence times, the ability to drive arbitrary single qubit operations across large portions of the array in parallel, and the ability to trap 100+ qubits (and far beyond in the future). As we develop our second-generation quantum computers, we will build on the proven architecture and successes demonstrated on Phoenix to scale up to systems with fidelities and qubit numbers high enough to solve problems that cannot be solved with classical computers. Stay tuned and sign up for our Tech Perspectives blog series to learn more!

Moor Insights & Strategy- INSIDER PODCAST - with Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead and CEO Rob Hays

An insightful conversation between Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead and our CEO Rob Hays on the Insider Podcast. Patrick and Rob dive into what's on the horizon as quantum computing evolves: quantum scalability, roadmaps, QaaS (quantum as-a-service), on-prem vs. off-prem, investments, market consolidation, quantum ecosystem, and more.

The Truth About Scaling Quantum Computing

Rob Hays, CEO, Atom Computing

Last week, quantum computing industry insiders were talking about and debating the current state of the technologies, system requirements for various algorithms, and when quantum advantage will be achieved. This flurry of discussion was stirred up by a report from short-selling activists at Scorpion Capital calling into question “Is quantum computing real?” While sensational in many respects, the report raises important questions about whether quantum computing systems actually exist, how useful are they in solving computation problems, and what is hype vs. reality. These questions compelled me to share my observations on where the technology stands today and how hard-working scientists and engineers are blazing the path to commercial value at scale.

Quantum computers are real.

At a conference hosted by MIT in May 1981, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist, Richard Feynman, urged the world to build what he called a quantum computer, stating “If you want to make a simulation of nature, you’d better make it quantum mechanical.”  He laid down a grand challenge for scientists to develop a quantum computer.  40 years later, we have working, albeit small, quantum computers, and quantum computing development is accelerating around the globe. In fact, the Quantum Computing Report is tracking over 144 companies and institutions developing at least 9 different quantum computing architectures.

Today, users can program and run quantum circuits using a standard gate set supported by multiple hardware providers using popular software developer kits from multiple software providers. For decades, hardware providers have been building better qubits, eliminating noise to improve fidelities, extending coherence times, and improving gate speeds. This is the daily toil of quantum engineers, continuously improving their craft. However, the technology is still in its infancy. Today’s quantum computers have dozens to a few hundred qubits. That’s large enough for researchers and users to do early pathfinding for quantum algorithms and gain valuable experience in programming the systems but not large enough for meaningful commercial value. It’s estimated that we need thousands to a million+ qubits to yield error-corrected systems that can run a broad range of commercial applications.

The challenge is to scale.

Building reliable quantum computers with a million+ qubits along with the software and algorithms to provide valuable computation is the hard work ahead of us. The quest for large-scale quantum computers is what drives us at Atom Computing. Our sole focus is on building quantum computers that scale as quickly as possible using neutral atoms. Other prevalent quantum computing architectures, namely superconductors and trapped ions, have helped to advance the industry by proving that systems could be built with quality qubits, but so far this has only been achieved at small numbers of qubits.

The neutral atom approach uses optical tweezers to hold an array of atoms in a palm-sized vacuum chamber. Alkaline earth element atoms are trapped and cooled by lasers and then arranged a few microns apart from each other. They are made into qubits by precisely controlling the spin of each atom’s nucleus and entanglement between their electron clouds using pulses of light. The atoms are so close to each other that millions of them can feasibly be held in the same small vacuum chamber without significant growth of the overall system footprint. Experiments have demonstrated that more qubits can be packed into the chamber by arranging atoms in three dimensions and that a 3D arrangement has advantages for error correction. It’s straightforward to imagine a 3D array of 100 x 100 x 100 = 1 million qubits. At four microns apart, a million qubits would be controlled wirelessly by lasers in a volumetric space of less than 1/10th of a cubic millimeter. Building powerful quantum computers requires scientific know-how and a lot of engineering effort across multiple disciplines. This takes time and we are making steady progress toward our goal.

We need to be realistic about where we are.

As progress is made, it’s important to recognize where the industry is on this journey and for achievements to be realistically represented in appropriate context. At Atom Computing, we believe that honesty and transparency are critical to the success of our company, our partners, and the quantum industry at large. You can count on us to do what we say.

If you want to hear more about my perspectives on the quantum computing industry and Atom Computing’s progress, watch my Insider Podcast discussion with tech industry analyst, Pat Moorhead, and/or join me at Inside Quantum Technology in San Diego where I will give a keynote presentation on May 12. We hope you will continue to follow us as we rise to meet the challenge of building large-scale quantum systems and that you see the promise of neutral atom technology to deliver on Richard Feynman’s quantum computing vision.

Atom Computing’s CEO Believes Neutral Atoms Offer Fastest Path to Scalable Quantum Computing The Quantum Insider

Atom Computing Plans To Build A Bigger And Better High-Tech Quantum Computer With Its Latest $60 Million Series B Funding | FORBES

Atom Computing, a quantum computing company headquartered in Berkeley, California, seems to be on the fast track for funding. 

Quantum Watch: Neutral Atoms Draw Growing Attention as Promising Qubit Technology | HPC Wire

Currently, there are many qubit technologies vying for sway in quantum computing.

Quantum computing strategy secures $60M - Rob Hays, Atom CEO - Exclusive Interview by Maëva Ghonda